Friday, 21 February 2014

Exploring the Windows Registry Part 2

Each Hive is divided into a number of allocation units called Blocks, the first block of a Hive is called the Base Block. The information which is stored within a Hive is then organized into Cells which contain active registry data such as keys, values, security descriptors and subkeys.

The Hive Blocks are allocated in 4096 byte allocation sizes, and are called Hive Bins. The Base Block may also be referred to as the Registry Header, with the other blocks being called Hive Bins. Each Hive Bin is then divided further into Cells as explained above.

A Hive Bin will have the hbin signature which can be found with WinDbg. Firstly, use the !reg hivelist extension, and then use the !reg viewlist extension with a desired Hive Address.

The !reg viewlist extension will list the Mapped Views for the selected Hive. I wasn't able to find a dump file which had any mapped views, therefore I won't be able to show you the steps completely. Once you have used the !reg viewlist extension, then use the db command with a desired view to view the contents of a bin.

The _HHIVE data structure seems to contain a Signature field and BaseBlock field as described earlier. Each Hive Bin contains a pointer to the next Hive Bin and the first Hive Bin. We can find free Hive Bins with the !reg freebins extension and the Hive address.

These Hive Bins are only really containers for Cells which hold registry information such as keys, security descriptors, subkey lists and key values. There a few different types of Cells:
  • Key Cell
  • Value Cell
  • Subkey-list Cell
  • Value-list Cell
  • Security-Descriptor Cell
The Key Cell contains the registry key and may be called the Key Node. A Key Cell will contain the kn signature for Keys and kl for Link Nodes. Furthermore, the Key Cell will maintain timestamp information about the latest update to that key, and various Cell Indexes which will describe additional information.

The Value Cell contains information about the key's value, and will have a Cell Index into what the cell which contains such data about the key. The signature will be kv.

The Subkey-List Cell contains a list of Cell Indexes for Key Cells in which all share a common Parent Key.

The Value-List Cell is the same as above, but applies to Value Cells rather than Key Cells.

The Security Descriptor Cell will contain the ks signature and a reference count which maintains a count of the number of Key Nodes or Key Cells which share the Security Descriptor. This cell will contain a Security Descriptor.

We can view Cell data structures with the _CM_CELL_DATA and then using the -r switch to dump all the hidden sub data structures. The -r switch is really useful for data structures in general, especially since Microsoft won't document some sub fields fully.

Since we are the topic of keys, I thought it would be appropriate to look at the concept of Keys and how we can investigate into Keys further with WinDbg. We can firstly use the !reg openkeys extension, and then view any open keys. Please note that I've omitted the output of the extension to one Hive.

However, we can gather more interesting information by looking into a few data structures. Each key will have a Key Control Block (KCB), we can use the _CM_KEY_CONTROL_BLOCK data structure to view the information about the open key.

This is similar information to which can be found with the !reg kcb extension, you will need to use the !reg findkcb extension with the full registry path, in order to find the kcb address. However, with the open keys case, you can simply use the !reg kcb extension since the KCB address is already given.

The Configuration Manager maintains open keys within a table for fast name lookups, the table can be found with two global variables called CmpCacheTable and CmpHashTableSize. The CmpCacheTable is a pointer to a hash table which explains the _CM_KEY_HASH data structure within the KCB.

Each entry within the table is a pointer to the _CM_KEY_HASH data structure.

The NextHash field points to the next structure within the table.

In my next blog post I'll discuss Cells and Cell Index Translation.

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